Occurs when a stoma pouch that is being worn by an ostomate fills up with excessive gas, resulting in a balloon effect where the pouch begins to inflate. This most commonly occurs when:
- The filter is blocked
- The filter is ineffective (i.e. the charcoal filter becomes wet)
- There is no filter on the pouch
Base Plate/ Wafer/ Flange
A base plate is the key feature of both the one and the two piece systems. The baseplate wafer is composed of a unique combination of hydrocolloids that aid in the adhesion and security of the pouch when attached to the skin surrounding the stoma. Base plates are available in pre-cut or cut-to-fit options, and in two shapes: flat and convex.
A flat base plate made from Aloe Vera infused hydrocolloids. (Product: FHD)
A disorder in which the lining of the colon becomes inflamed.
A procedure that involves the examination of the colon and rectum through the means of a flexible endoscope. The purpose of a colonoscopy is to identify the cause of internal issues such as bleeding, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhoea and can also be used to detect signs of cancer, abnormal growths, inflammation and ulcers.
A colostomy can be described as a surgically created opening in the large intestine or colon. A colostomy stoma essentially occurs when a section of the bowel is brought through the abdominal wall and is then sutured to the skin. This operation results in the faecal flow being diverted through the stoma. There are four main areas of the colon where a colostomy procedure may take place:
A convex base plate can be identified as the slight raise or outward curving of a base plate. Designed to assist the jutting of retracted or flushed stomas, a convex base plate creates pressure on the surrounding skin of the stoma when applied. The application of the convex base plate provides increased security and can help prevent leakage. Convex is available in a one and two piece system and a range of depths to support the type of stoma and the needs of each individual.
A convex-shaped base plate
Crohn's disease involves inflammation of any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. The most common areas affected are the small intestine and the colon. Crohn's disease can affect particular regions of the intestine and leave other area clear and healthy. Affected walls of the gastrointestinal tract can be irritated with strictures, abscesses, fistulae or fissures.
Dehydration is the loss of water and salt that is essential for the body to function normally. With dehydration, more water is moving out of the cells and body, than the amount of water we are taking in through drinking.
Double Barrel Stoma
Two stomas are created on the abdominal surface. They are usually separated by a section of skin or are located on different abdominal quadrants.
Faeces are semi-solid or solid waste product excreted by the body through the anus. It consists of three parts water and one part solid material. The composition of faeces includes mucus, undigested fats, cellulose, potassium, sodium, bile pigments, desquamated epithelial cells and water. The average individual will excrete approximately 150-250 grams of faeces on a daily basis.
Irregular opening from an internal organ to the skins surface or between two internal organs. Fistulas can occur in a variety of area including the colon, bladder, rectum, skin, small bowel and vagina.
A flushed stoma is one that is flat or equal to skin level. Flushed stomas can be more difficult to manage and are prone to leakage.
Hernias occur as a result of a weakness in the muscle wall and consequently internal organs may protrude. This results in a bulge containing loops of intestine appearing around the stoma. Hernias can occur shortly after stoma surgery or may arise years after the procedure. Hernias have a tendency of being uncomfortable and becoming a precursor to other issues such as leakage and difficulty with stoma appliance adhesion. There are a variety of causes of hernias including:
- Surgical technique
- Coughing and straining
- Muscle weakness
A hydrocolloid is a unique blend of polymers and water. The role of hydrocolloids is to act as a protective barrier on the skin and prevent leakages from the stoma. Absorption of water results in hydrocolloids forming a gel. Hydrocolloids are of vital importance for base plates as they protect the skin through high levels of adhesion and absorption.
Salts Mouldable Seal made from hydrocolloids
A disease which sees the inflammation of the ileum, a portion of the small intestine. Inflammation of the small and the large intestine extending past the ileum is more commonly known as Crohn's disease.
An ileostomy is when a stoma is created from the small intestine or section of the ileum. The procedure is essentially where a portion of the iluem in brought through the abdominal wall.
This portion of the ileum is then formed into a spout and is sutured to the skin. The output from an ileostomy is generally quite loose, however, the location of the stoma in the small intestine along with other factors (such as diet) will influence the consistency of an ostomate's output.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory Bowell Disease (IBD) is primarily an umbrella term to explain two bowel conditions: Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Symptoms of IBD include:
- Abdominal pain
- Weight loss
The intestines are vital organs in the gastrointestinal tract of our digestive system. Their functions are to digest food and to enable the nutrients released from the food to enter into the bloodstream. The intestine alimentary canal extends from the stomach to the anus an is made up of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (small intestine) and the colon( large intestine).
A loop stoma is when a loop portion of the intestine is brought through a surgical opening in the abdominal wall. A loop stoma can be identified as having two distinct openings in which the intestine will become a stoma. These two openings are known as proximal functional opening and the distal non-function opening and the intestine that is brought through these two openings is known as the undivided posterior section of the wall. Loop stomas can be permanent or temporary.
A maceration is when the skin surrounding the stoma becomes damaged as a result of excess moisture in the skin. Maceration of the skin can often make the area effected feel itchy and is more susceptible to irritation due to the rubbing or friction on the softened skin area.
An ostomy is a surgically created opening in the abdominal wall for the primary purpose of faecal or urine waste excretion. Ostomy surgeries can either be temporary or permanent.
Pancaking is when the faeces excreted from the stoma does not drop into the pouch. It most commonly occurs in colostomy patients
Parastomal is the term commonly used to describe the area beside the stoma.
Peristomal is the term commonly used to describe any area proximately surrounding the stoma.
Refers to an increased protrusion of a stoma from the opening of the abdominal wall. A prolapsed stoma can occur through:
- Telescoping of the bowel through the stoma opening in the abdomen
- An excessively large opening in the abdominal wall caused by surgical technique
- Increased pressure through activities such as heavy lifting, coughing and straining
When the stoma is below skin level is deemed as a recessed or retracted stoma. Recessed stomas can be difficult to manage as obtaining a secure seal around the stoma can be complicated. There are stoma products that have been specifically designed for those individuals that have a retracted stoma. Recessed or retracted stomas can occur through:
- Surgical technique
- Surgical difficulties ( e.g. poor mobilisation of the bowel, excessive tension of the suture line as the fasical layer)
- Recurring malignancy
- Weight gain
Derived from the latin word for mouth or opening, stoma refers to an opening either in or out of the body.
Occurring in the colon and rectum, colitis is an inflammation that results in symptoms such as bloody diarrhoea and urgent frequency to go to the toilet.